This subcomponent represents an opportunity for supporting community strengthening actions through the Sustainable Action Plans (PAS) and the Indigenous Peoples Action Plans (PPI), to face the possible impacts from the PA creation and implementation upon the way of life and the economy of the human communities dwelling in the PA’s area of influence, due to restrictions to access natural resources.
Some community strengthening actions can be the potential drivers of negative environmental impacts which are local, reversible and possible of being mitigated, and they require previous planning of prevention and mitigation actions, following the guidelines from the Environmental Safeguard, called Environmental Assessment.
This subcomponent was designed according to the World Bank’s policies and guidelines regarding environmental safeguards (Environmental Assessment) and social safeguards (Involuntary Resettlement and Indigenous Peoples).
The beneficiaries will then be human communities inhabiting or using the protected areas, whether they are in the federal or state scope, and whether they are sustainable use areas – with the designed Use Plan – or strict protection areas – with the Term of Commitment signed. Through PPIs, the Program will also contemplate indigenous peoples whose territories are bordering with the PAs and who have some dependence relation with the PAs (such as traffic, wandering areas, access to cultural assets and sacred sites).
Sustainable Action Plans (PAS)
Arpa will support the Sustainable Action Plans (PAS) induced and guided by the human population benefitting from the protected areas. The Sustainable Action Plans which are approved will have ensured funds in the protected areas Annual Operational Plans (POAs), and they will be implemented by the protected areas in partnership with local communities.
The protected areas will be classed and listed following the priority list and according to the degree of potential or present negative impact caused by the restrictions to the use of natural resources. PAs with lesser impacts will be identified and asked to promote integration opportunities among the PAs and local communities.
Eligible activities for PAs are the following: 1. Encouragement for alternative technologies for the sustainable use of natural resources, according to the Management Plan guidelines; 2. Alternative subsistence activities; 3. Capacity building in environmental conservation practices and natural resources sustainable use; 4. Activities for the joint protection and surveillance of PAs; 5. Promotion of the exchange of experience; 6. Encouragement to participation in PAs management (through management boards); 7. Encouragement for services cooperative organization.
The PAS will include the following elements: 1. Rapid social and economic diagnosis of the affected populations, identifying negative potential or present effects resulting from the restrictions to the natural resources access and use. 2. Evidence that there were consultations with the affected population and that those consultations were culturally adequate. 3. Proposal for specific activities, budget and schedule. 4. Arrangements for the implementation of the proposed actions and technical assistance to be provided. 5. Evidence that the PAS was discussed, reviewed and approved by the Management Board of the PA (to be verified through the minutes of the meeting). 6. Fill in the Environmental Safeguards check list. 7. Methods of activities monitoring and evaluation. .
Indigenous Peoples Action Plans (PPI)
The requisites for PPI design and implementation are the following: 1. Identification of the need to build integrated management instruments between the indigenous peoples and the PAs integrated management, originated in the indigenous communities’ demands to access the territory and natural resources of protected areas. 2. The PA should have a minimum number of staff members assigned to the PA and who have participated in specific capacity building on that theme, besides an operating Management Board with the participation of indigenous peoples representatives. 3. Evidence that previous, free, and informed consultations were conducted with the indigenous peoples, before the design of such plans.
Eligible activities for the PPIs are the following: 1. Alternative subsistence activities and compensation for the restricted or forbidden activities. 2. Promotion and adoption of more sustainable technologies for the use of natural resources. 3. Capacity building activities related to environmental conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. 4. Joint protection activities for the areas, ensuring the permitted access of indigenous peoples to their sacred sites.
PPIs should have the following content: 1. A rapid social and economic diagnosis of the affected indigenous communities in the surrounding areas, giving special attention to the existing belief systems and natural resources use standards within the PAs, while identifying negative impacts from the restricted use and identification of co-management arrangements and other necessary and appropriate methods to mitigate those negative effects. 2. Evidence that previous, free, informed and culturally adequate consultations were conducted with the affected indigenous communities about the proposed PPIs. 3. Proposals for specific activities to be carried out and their budget estimates. 4. Schedule for implementation of proposed activities. 5. Arrangements for the implementation of proposed activities and technical assistance to be provided. 6. Evidence that the PPIs minutes were reviewed, analyzed and approved by the PA Management Board (indigenous representatives included). 7. Description of the PPI monitoring and evaluation methodology.
Criteria for the eligibility of PAs and supported communities
In order to submit their PAS and PPI proposals, the protected areas and communities must comply with the following criteria:
1. The protected areas do not overlap with indigenous or ‘quilombolas’ territories, or are not the subject of any territorial claim. 2. Affected populations do not include perpetrators of rural property documentation fraud, or illegal activities in the territory, and persons or families which were let in the area after the publication of the PA Creation Decree. 3. Sustainable use PAs will require an approved Management or Use Plan, its Management Board created, and a minimum number of staff members assigned to the area. 4. Strict Protection PAs will require the Management Board created, a signed (if necessary) Management Plan or Term of Commitment, and a minimum number of staff members assigned to the area.
PPIs implementation monitoring and evaluation will adopt participatory methods and tools in order to verify the following: 1. the involvement and the degree of participation of indigenous peoples with the beneficiaries and the program results; 2. Increase in the people’s representation in the PA Management Board; and 3. Program results.
Monitoring and evaluation instruments will include: 1. Progress reports on the PPIs implementation; 2. Annual meetings with the indigenous leaders; and 3. Definition and analysis of performance indicators and outcomes related to the Indigenous People Participation Strategy for the intermediary assessment studies and for the final assessment of the Program.
It is recommended that proceedings be established in the PAS and the PPI to minimize the impacts from the extracted natural resources use and the gradual decrease in resource extraction within the strict protection area.