Further information Subcomponent 4.4

Monitoring will be implemented in a different way in the PAs which are in a more advanced stage of implementation, with at least one biodiversity or social and environmental indicator, combining the assessment in situ with the remote follow up, and addressing one of the following proposed themes:

• Landscape: analysis of pressures and ecosystem representation of the entire set of protected areas with Arpa support.

• Biodiversity: monitoring in situ in the supported PAs, based on the Program’s prioritization criteria and landscape analysis, involving (i) strategic groups to allow for a systemic analysis: biomass and vegetation structure; medium and large mammals; fish from creeks and streams; and amphibians, and (ii) specific groups for monitored PAs, focusing on their conservation priorities (freshwater resources, threatened species, species motivating the creation of the PA etc.).

• Social and environmental issues: the use of a set of pre-defined indicators to follow up, in situ, the use of resources, social and economic aspects, cultural aspects, and the community experience in the PAs.

• Climate: organization of the information on the climatological parameters from INPE (National Space Research Institute), INMET (National Meteorology Institute), SIPAM (Amazon Protection System) and ANA (National Water Agency), for the stations located within or in the surroundings of the protected areas, and identification of the need for expanding the data coverage, in order to allow the analysis and follow up of climate change threats.